- [Voiceover] In the last video,

I talked about how if you're trying to maximize

or minimize a multi-variable function,

you can imagine it's graph.

In this case, this is just a two-variable function

and we're looking at it's graph.

And you want to find the spots

where the tangent plane is completely flat.

So one way to visualize this is to imagine a flat plane

that just represents a constant Z value,

so a constant output value for the function.

And if you kind of move it up and down,

you're looking for the spot where it only barely intersects

with the graph at the top before it's not intersecting

with it anymore, meaning that there's no values

of the function that get above that point.

So you're looking just for where it's tangent,

where you can find a tangent plane that's flat.

But this will give you some other points,

like the little local minima here,

the bumps where the value of the function

at that point is higher than all of the neighbor points.

You know, if you walk in any direction,

you're going downhill, so that's another thing

you're gonna incidentally pick up

by looking for places where this tangent plane is flat,

but there's also a really interesting new possibility

that comes up in the context of multi-variable functions.

And this is the idea of a saddle point.

So let me pull up another graph here, this guy.

And the function that you're looking at,

here, I'll write it down, the function

that you're looking at is f(x,y)=x2-y2.

So now let's think about what the tangent plane

at the origin of this entire graph would be.

Now the tangent plane to this graph

at the origin is actually flat.

Here's what it looks like.

And to convince yourself of this,

let's go ahead and actually compute the partial derivatives

of this function and evaluate each one at the origin.

So the partial derivative, with respect to X,

we look here and X-squared is the only spot

where an X shows up, so it's 2X

and the other partial derivative.

The partial with respect to Y,

we take the derivative of this negative Y-squared

and we ignore the X because it looks

like a constant as far as Y is concerned.

And we get negative 2Y.

Now, if we plug in the point, the origin,

in to any one of these, you know,

we plug in the point (X,Y)=(0,0),

then what do each of these go to?

Well the top one, X equals zero,

so this guy goes to zero and similarly over here,

Y is zero, so this goes to zero.

So both partial derivatives are zero

and what that means is if you are standing

at the origin and you move in any direction,

there's no slope to your movement.

And one way of seeing this is to chop the graph.

So if we imagine chopping it with a plane

that represents a constant X-value

and we kind of chop off the graph there,

what you'll see, here, I'll get rid of the tangent plane.

What you'll see is that the curve

where this intersects the graphs,

let me trace that out, the curve

where it intersects the graph

basically has a local maximum at that origin point.

The tangent line of the curve at that point

in the Y direction is flat and it's because it looks

like a local maximum from that perspective.

But now let's imagine chopping it in a different direction.

So if instead, we have the full graph

and instead of chopping it with a constant X value,

we chop it with a constant Y value,

then in that case, we look at the curve

and if we trace out the curve

where this constant Y value intersects the graph.

Let's see what it would look like.

It's also kind of this parabolic shape.

Again, the tangent line is flat

because it looks like a local minimum of that curve.

So because it's flat in one direction

and it's flat in the other direction,

the tangent plane of the graph

as a whole is indeed gonna be flat.

But notice this is neither a local maximum

nor a local minimum because from one direction,

from one direction, it looked like it was a local maximum.

Here, I'll get rid of that guy.

It looks like it's a local maximum

when you look on the curve there,

but from another direction, if you chop it another way,

it looks like a local minimum.

And if we look at the equations,

this kind of makes sense because if you're just thinking

about movements in the X direction,

the entire function looks like X- squared

plus some kind of constant.

So the graph of that would look

like an X-squared parabola shape

that has a local minimum, but if you're thinking

of pure movements in the Y direction

and you're just focused on that Y-squared component,

the graph that you get for negative Y-squared is gonna look

like an upside down parabola.

Here, I'll draw that again.

It's gonna look like an upside down parabola

and that's got a local maximum.

So it's kind of like the X and Y directions disagree

over whether this point, whether this point

where you have a flat tangent plane

should be a local maximum or a local minimum.

And this is new to multi-variable calculus,

this is something that doesn't come up

in single-variable calculus because

when you're looking at the graph of a function,

you know, you're looking at some kind of graph.

If the tangent line is zero, you know,

if the tangent line is completely flat at some point,

either it's a local maximum or it's local minimum.

It can't disagree because there's only one input variable.

There's only one X as the input variable for your graph.

But once we have two, it's possible that they disagree.

And this kind of point has a special name

and the name is kind of after this graph

that you're looking at, it's called a saddle point.

Saddle point.

And this is one of those rare times

where I actually kind of like the terminology

that mathematicians have given something.

Because this looks like a saddle,

the sort of thing that you would put

on a horse's back before riding it.

So one thing that this means for us

as we're gonna try to figure out ways

to find the absolute maximum or minimum of a function,

as we're trying to optimize a function

that might represent like profits of your company

or a cost function in a machine learning setting

or something like that, is we're gonna have

to be able to recognize if a point is a saddle point.

And if you're just looking at the graph, that's fine.

You can recognize it visually,

but oftentimes if you're just given the formula

of a function and it's some long thing.

Without looking at the graph,

how would you be able to tell,

just by doing certain computations to the formula,

whether or not it's a saddle point?

And that comes down to something

called the second partial derivative test,

which I will talk about in the next few videos.

See you then!