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I'm Thomas Malone, Director of the MIT Center
for Collective Intelligence.
We define collective intelligence
very broadly as groups of individuals acting collectively
in ways that seem intelligent.
Now by this definition, collective intelligence
has existed for a very long time.
Families, companies, countries, armies, these
are all examples of groups of people working together
in ways that, at least sometimes, seem intelligent.
But in the last few years, we've seen some very new kinds
of collective intelligence enabled by the internet.
Think of Google or Wikipedia or Linux, for example.
In our recent work on measuring collective intelligence,
we've also used a more precise definition,
based on how psychologists define intelligence
for individuals.
According to this definition, collective intelligence
is a group's general ability to perform well,
not just on a single task, but on a wide range
of different tasks.