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So [we] built most of the computer and in the last video we programmed the control logic
To with enough micro code to be able to execute a simple program here that loads a value for memory
Adds a value from a different location in memory outputs the result and then halts and that's programmed into the computer now
so if I start the clock you'll see it loads and
Ads and then outputs the result here now the question is what happens if I want to run this program again
[so] to run the program again. We've got to reset the computer
[which] right now is kind of cumbersome, so the way that we do that
Now is we have to stop the clock and then reset each module individually and each [module] has a reset signal hooked up to it
So for example the program counter the reset signal is here
And it's currently high if I take it low, then that resets the program counter to zero with a register
It's currently low
And if we take it high that will reset the a register
[same] with the b register if we take that high [it] will reset that the output register if we take it low
[it'll] reset that to zero
the instruction register if we take that high
That'll reset that and in the memory address register same thing if we go high that will reset that
So now all of these modules are reset except for the micro instruction counter here which is still on T2?
And that has a reset as well
But remember that reset is already hooked up to T5 because when it counts up to T5
Then it resets
Back to zero [and] we don't really have an easy way right now to get this to T5 because normally you increment the you know
Advance the clock and it would count through but because the halt we have a halt condition here the clocks not going to do anything
So what we need to do is
Connect this to ground
This reset signal to ground so what I'll do is disconnect this existing connection here to T5 and then briefly connect that to ground
to reset that
And then once that's reset now all of the different modules in the computer are reset and if we start the clock again
the program runs again, and there's our output
that was pretty cumbersome, so what I want to do in this video is build a
Basically just hook up really a circuit that gives us a simple push-button that we can push
That resets everything all [at] once [so] [the] circuit to do this is actually pretty simple
So there's basically just a push-button switch that when we push it connects five volts
but normally the output here is tied low through could be like a 10k resistor or something and
Then that voltage widgets are going to buffer so that we can drive
The [the] reset signal which goes out to various different
modules in the computer of course some of the modules have
Inverted reset signal so we have an inverter here that will give us that as well
So some modules have a reset some modules have an inverted reset so we just need to make sure that we have both [of] those
signals available when we push the button
The other thing is this step reset
which currently is connected to the T5 the time time step 5 so currently this wire here is connected from
T5 so when this ring counter gets to time T5?
Then that is connected around to the reset here for the 74 LS. 161 reset so then that resets
So in other words currently this T5 is just directly connected to the step reset signal
So what we want to do is we want to put a nand gate in here
So that normally this is going to be high and this is going to be high because these are you know active low signals?
So if both of those are high then the output here is going to be high as well
So we're not going to be resetting
This is also an active low
But as either of these goes low either because we push the reset [button] and we want to reset it or we get to time
T5 and we want that to reset it then this step reset will go low and [that] will actually reset our micro instruction
Counter so this is fairly [straightforward]. We need a buffer and inverter and a nand gate
[but] to make this a little bit simpler to build we can actually you know just do this with a single type of gate
So we only need a single chip that has that type of gate on it and so here
I've redrawn the same thing using only nand gates and that will allow us to use a
7400 chip that has [four] nand gates on it and conveniently this circuit
I uses for nand gates and so one thing
I notice is a little bit backwards here is if you connect both inputs of a nand gate together
And then you look at the output then the nand gate is going to act as an inverter, so this first gate
Here is actually inverting and so the first thing we get out is our inverted reset signal
But then if we invert it again using another nand gate then we get our reset signal and so then both of these signals will
Be buffered, and we'll have our inverted reset in our in our normal reset and then of course our and gate
We can use a nand gate
Which is you know an gate with an inverted [output]?
And then we can just invert [that] output again and that gives us our our step preset same functionality here
so we have our inverted reset coming in here our time step t 5 s coming in here and then
these two gates together act as a nand gate in the same way that this one did [so]
[we] can use a 74 Ls 0 0 which has 4 nand gates on it to to build all of this
So it doesn't really matter where I put this reset button on the breadboard
Because it's going to have to connect off to everything but since we are going to be
Messing around here with this you know t 5 and then the reset for for this
It might make sense just to put the reset circuit right right around here where it's nice and close
so I'm going to put our reset button right there and
Then [just] hook up one side of it to 5 volts
And then the other side through a resistor [to] ground
And then we've got our 74 Ls 0 0 which has our [four] nand gates on it
And I'll connect up power and ground to that as well
and so then the switch is going to connect into two inputs of the first nand gate, so
go ahead and connect that to one of the inputs and
Then just use a jumper to connect those two inputs together
So then the output of this nand gate is right here, and this will be our inverted reset coming off of here
That's also going to go into two inputs of the next nand gate
I'm going to use another jumper to connect to the next nand gate over and then the two inputs of that nand gate are also
Tied together so I'm going to use another of these little jumpers
To connect those two inputs together [and] so then the output over here from that second nand gate is right here
And that's our our non inverted so you can't see that
That's our non inverted reset signal right here
Now for the second part here for the you know the time [t5]
We're ending that with our inverted reset we want to connect our inverted reset
Which is right here, right, so this is input 1 input 2 and an output of the first nand gate
So this here is our inverted where you said we want to connect that around to one of the inputs of enough our nand gate
So I'll just connect that around
to one of the inputs here of an nand gate down here on the bottom and
Then the second input here for that nand gate. I want to connect to T5
so we
just connect power for now and then
Pull this connection out because we're going to replace this connection with this and gate circuit
Right get rid of that and then that T5 connection is actually going to come up and go into the second input of
this first nand gate on the left here, so that's t5 coming up there and [then] the output of
This nand gate here is going to go to the two inputs of the next nand gate
So we'll connect the output to the next nand gate there, and then we'll connect the two inputs of that next nand gate together
So this is where we're landing those two different signals and then the output of that is going into the deck the two inputs of
the next nand gate and then this
pin here is going to be the output that goes to our step reset and so we can just connect to that output down to
Our step reset down here, and then I hooks up everything for this circuit here, and we have our inverted reset
Let's see here on this pin, and then we have our non inverted reset over here on this pin
and so now we just need to connect those two signals up to various parts of the computer for
[example] if we look at the instruction register right here the reset signal there is connected to ground. So that's normally
connected to ground and then when we connect it to five volts that resets it so that the
Message is sort of the regular non inverted reset which is this pin here
So we can connect that get rid of this and connect that directly?
to the
Instruction register like that and so now when we push that button it will reset the instruction register
So another part of the computer that uses the non inverted reset is
Going to be the memory address register up here so we can we [can] connect those together as well
So I can just connect from a memory address register here down to our instruction register down here, and so now get rid of this
Now our button over [here] will reset both the instruction register and the memory address register
And so we'll just connect the rest of the things in the same way
so from the memory address register
We can come over to the a register is the same same way that goes into the reset here on this
chip which then is connected over to this other chip here as well and
Then the B register, which is down here
We can connect that up to the a register, so these are all connected together now now
We still have a couple other things for example the program counter up here
You can see that's tied high because we have to take it low to reset that
And then same thing down here for our output register that's high and then we have to take that low to reset that
so for those will connect the inverted reset signal
Which is right over here on?
this pin
Now this pin here is our inverted reset and so we'll bring that up and connect to our program counter
So there's the program counter, and then finally we can connect that down to the output register. Which is down here
You can kind of tie some of these in place here with this little jumper there hold things together
And so that's all of the reset signals for all of the different parts of the computer now
We can reset by pushing this button, so let's give it a try
So I'll connect power
And I'll start by stopping the clock
Going into program mode
And actually I'll try to reset and we can see a couple things did look like they reset
But we'll we'll see here in a minute
So let me just quickly program that same program into the computer
so we'll go to memory address [0] and we'll put in a load a
14 and then we'll go to address 1 and put in an add 15 and then address 2
we'll do an output and
Then address 3 we'll do halt
then address 14
we'll put in the number 28 [and]
[address] 15 I'll put in the number 14. So those are the numbers. We add go back into run mode
And if we start the clock this should run, and we should see our output
And there we go
there's our output and we've halted now if we press the reset button it should reset and run the program again and
[there] goes it runs the program again so we can just keep hitting the three set and it will keep running the program each time
So that's certainly a lot easier
And we can also now go in and change you know our data, so instead [of] adding 14
Let's say we want to add some other numbers, so I'll just flip some random switches here. Set that number in there
and if we go back into run mode and just reset
Now we get a different answer because we changed our our inputs we can go back
Go to the other operand here, and maybe set some other things
put in some other number and
Rerun the program
And we got 12 that time
so it certainly makes it a lot easier to try out different things and
Reprogram and everything without having to tufts around with the resetting each module individually
So another thing I want to talk about because this is a question that's come [up] from a number of folks is
Power for the computer, and I'm currently using this 5 volt 1 Amp usb charger from an iPhone
And I've just you know have a normal usB cable connected to it that I've cut open and I'm just pulling out the 5 volts
and ground and
Powering a computer, and this is working reasonably well for me however this particular character
And I think because it's rated at 1 amp
It does actually shut down, and that's because if [I] hook the computer up [to] a bunch power supply
And I look at the current that it's drawing it draws. You know somewhere between
1.1 1.2 amps currently for me
Which is more than what this is rated for and so you know there's a poly fuse or something in here that'll little trip
And shut this down so that it's not so it doesn't overheat or whatever
So that is that is definitely an issue, and so what [I've] found is [I've] found much better luck with this charger
Which is a 2 amp charger, and if I connect this then it also power the computer
Just just like this is but I won't have any problems with [it] shutting down
I can leave it on for you know several days and the computer works just fine
Whereas this will shut [down] after I'm actually not sure how long it takes maybe an hour to
And then it just turns off and which is fine. It's just a poly fuse
That's dripping in here to prevent it from operating outside of its its spec
But this works just fine now another
Series of problems is just getting power distributed to everything and getting enough power to everything on the bread boards
And I think I've got [a] couple things going for me
[one] is I'm using very high quality bread boards
In fact, we see like the specific bread board. I'm using is is this is the BB-8 [30] from
what is this bus board prototype systems and
I've you know they may be there's other high quality ones
But this is these are the ones I found that the team the highest quality to me
however, they can be a little bit challenging to find because sometimes you'll see things that claim to be this brand and this model and
Everything else and when you order you get something different, [so] so it can be a little bit tricky
But these I found tend to have very good connections
[and] so I think I think that's helping me run into fewer problems than than other folks who are running into problems getting power distributed
Now the other kind of breadboard that is very common is this [MB] 102 and this is quite a bit [cheaper]
I found then then the
BB-8 30
at least in the name-brand one sometimes you order a BB-8 30 and get one of these so that's some to be aware of
Either these are much more common. I think because they're they're much less expensive
This is seven or eight dollars and these are you know sometimes less than two dollars?
It'll definitely work
Couple things I've noticed in terms of quality aside from you know perhaps. There's a connection quality when you connect to it
You know how sturdy those connections are is just a few other [things]. You know just
Quality wise if you look at it like this you
[know] this is the
BB-8 30 and you can see it's got these you know numbered holes from one over here all the way up to
You know this is 60 so 60 3 so there's takes [T3] rows there where if you look at the MB 102?
The numbers don't really line up with the holes exactly so it's a little bit unclear. You know is this zero
Somewhere yeah, and it's not clear. What's going on there?
And also the numbers on this side go backwards, [so] [that's] a little bit strange
[the] other thing is these power rails on the bD 830 connect all the way across and on the NB 102
as the
Printing on here would [indicate] pay break here. So you need a little jumper to connect across there
[you] know and just other things like the a this is a row a
Until you get to the other side where it's row upside Down J
So just some just some kind of weird quality issues. You know other things I've noticed
[it's] just when you're inserting
sometimes with the
less expensive boards you know it can be a concealed little stiff that can feel like you're not getting as good a connection with the
Higher quality boards
It always feels like you're making a good connection every time but of course you want to weigh all of that against
[costs] because the lower quality boards certainly are much less expensive [and]
You know it may actually be better value to you to get the [lower-cost] ones depending on you know how much you're planning to use
Them so I'm going to be aware [that] I've noticed is
Just as I wiggle this connection here of the power connection
You can see me or at least I can see here these leds are flickering a bit. Hopefully you can see that on the camera
you know that certainly suggests that the
Connection [it] you know just [all] any of these connections on these bread boards are not going to be perfect
and that's the the problem that we're sort of battling with with this power issue that I think a lot of people are seeing and
One trick that I saw I think this was truly an [island] that
Did this on his channel in which I definitely recommend [checking] out his channel
He's working on a breadboard
Computer of his of his own that is a bit different from this
So I think it's a good as a compliment to this, but I definitely recommend checking that out
I'll link it [down] below, but I think you know he
Used one of these sort of standard header things and just connected three of them together like [this] for the positive and negative
So connecting that to your usb power connector is going to give you a much more solid
Connection into the breadboard and so I've actually found this to be a really great
Set up here with this three wide connection because it's really solid I can you know wiggle that
And I'm not seeing any of that flickering
Everything even it also just seems to be a little bit brighter with with this so that's definitely helping a lot
And then I'm just using the the 2 amp usb supply
the 1 Amp works
But it does cut out and it's probably not terribly good for it to keep doing that [so]
[anyway], those are just a [few] tips that I've got that I've kind of found with as far as power for the computer
But you know this is working. Just great