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Welcome to 2 minute neuroscience, where I simplistically explain neuroscience topics
in 2 minutes or less.
In this installment I will discuss the lobes of the brain and some major landmarks of the
brain surface that can be seen from a lateral view.
The brain is made up of two halves, known as cerebral hemispheres.
When looking at the brain from a lateral view, which just means looking at it from the side,
we will only see one cerebral hemisphere, but the landmarks I will point out are found
on both cerebral hemispheres.
The surface of the cerebral hemispheres is covered with a thick layer of brain tissue
known as the cerebral cortex.
The cerebral cortex is folded to create more surface area, forming these ridges known as
gyri and grooves known as sulci.
This large sulcus is known as the central sulcus.
It divides the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe.
This sulcus is known as the Sylvian fissure, and it separates the temporal lobe from the
rest of the cerebral hemisphere.
The occipital lobe is found at the back of the brain, but it doesn’t have such a clear
division separating it from the rest of the brain.
There are certain functions associated with the lobes, but any short description of these
functions is oversimplified, as each is involved in many different processes.
The frontal lobes are important for movement and higher-order cognition like rational thought,
decision-making, and planning.
This area in front of the central sulcus is known as the precentral gyrus, and it is essential
for motor control as it is the location of the primary motor cortex.
The parietal lobes are important for processing of sensory information and are involved in
attention and our representation of the space around us.
This area in the parietal lobe, the postcentral gyrus, contains the primary somatosensory
cortex and is where the sense of touch is processed.
The temporal lobe is involved in processing auditory signals and also is important in
aspects of learning and memory.
The occipital lobes contain major visual processing areas of the brain, like the primary visual
cortex.